Behler, J. L. and F. W. King. We assessed how endangered eastern massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catenatus) responded to 2 types of manipulations at a wetland site in New York, USA: 1) cutting shrubs to create ≤100‐m 2 plots within known gestation areas in 2008, 2011, and 2012, and 2) cutting tree and shrub cover in the adjacent forest to create a 4‐ha forest clearing in 2011. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Albany, NY. Anthropogenic factors are the most significant threat to Eastern Massasauga populations. Prior. Subspecies no longer recognized. 2000, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy 2019) or at least when snakes are less active, from 11am to 3pm (Johnson et al 2000). It may be necessary to create site-specific management plans. The prairie rattleer in western and central New York. J. Herpetol. The two remaining sites in New York are safe from development, though natural succession is making them less suitable as time goes by. Average length is 27.5 inches. Milksnake is a thin-bodied snake with a 'V' or 'Y' -shaped mark on the head or neck and smooth scales. The main source of water is always groundwater. Map adapted from Conant and Collins (1998) and Harding (1997). Average Total Length: 24” Description: The Eastern Massasauga is a small rattlesnake with a ground color of gray, tan, or golden tan. This is the circumscription used by the USFWS (2009) for the eastern distinct population segment of Sistrurus catenatus. Johnson, Glenn. The eastern massasauga can remain undetected with the help of its pattern, even at close range. Johnson, Glenn and Alvin Breisch. Males and non-gravid female use similar upland habitat while gravid females remain close to hibernacula. They are also killed because people fear snakes in general and mistakenly perceive them to be a threat. Snakes move upland during the summer months (Johnson et al. 141 pp. For animals, taking, importation, transportation, or possession is prohibited, except under license or permit. Chambers, R.E. The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) is a small- to medium-sized pit viper that occurs in the Great Lakes Basin.It is one of two venomous snake species occurring in the region and the only venomous snake found in Michigan. What does an Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake look like? Additional studies are needed concerning population size, density estimates, age-specific mortality rates, and neonate and subadult movement patterns. Species are listed as such due to their wide distribution, presumed large population, or because they are unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. The eastern massasauga has been declining over the past three decades due to loss and fragmentation of its wetland habitat. 2021. Shoemaker, Keven T. Alex Krofta, and James Gibbs. 9 states where it is present; in New York, the eastern massasauga is known from only 2 sites. Former subspecies S. c. catenatus was the only subspecies in New York and the Northeast. There are only three species of venomous snakes living in the wilds of New York (many other kinds may be found in the homes of private individuals and, occasionally, escapes occur!). Based on systematic visual … A wetland that occurs on a bed of marl. Natural Habitat. The belly is usually black with light mottling. 1983. In New York, this species does not occur at the same locations as timber rattlesnakes, the only other rattlesnake species in the state. Historic reports and scattered … 2000, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy 2019). New York Natural Heritage Program. 1984. 1986. 282 pp. The species is commonly known as the eastern massasauga. Massasauga rattlesnakes range from central New York and southern Ontario west to the prairies of Iowa and Missouri. U.S. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation studies indicate a sharp population decline since the 1960s which lead to listing this species as state endangered in 1983 (Johnson and Breisch 1999). 205 pp. Marl fens may occur as small patches within a rich graminoid fen. The breeding season generally takes place during May or June, but mating can occur almost anytime from late April until September. Monthly highlights - 16 July to 15 August 1986. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry Endangered Species Unit. Mortality increases when snakes attempt to cross roads. If used, the best time to apply herbicides is at the end of the growing season, just before the leaves fall (Johnson et al. Mark/recapture and radio-telemetry studies were initiated in the early 1980s to determine the status of this species in New York State. (, Rich graminoid fen Thesis. However, the rattlesnake that you find in Alabama is likely to be a different species to the one you would find in California. A dark bar with a lighter border extends from the eye to the rear of the jaw. Wet prairie is the preferred habitat in the west, bogs and swamps in the east. 26:447-452. The whitish substance is calcium carbonate, people used to harvest marl to lime agricultural fields. Journal of Herpetology 34:186-192. Courtship and mating occurs August through September and females give birth to live young from mid-August to mid-September the following year (Johnson 1995). However, natural succession from open, natural wetlands to a closed canopy is a significant threat at both sites (Johnson 1995, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation 2019, Szymanski 1998). It is widely recognized as having undergone significant population declines throughout its range, having been afforded endangered or threatened status in ten of the eleven … Distribution: Eastern Massasaugas are a snake of glaciated Ohio, with records throughout the northern and western region of the state. 13pp. In New York, eastern massasauga currently occur in two large wetland complexes near Syracuse and Rochester, separate from one another and from the rest of the geographic distribution. (2007) recommends that a closed canopy should make up 0% to 25% of the wetland habitat and snakes have areas for “cryptic” basking. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. The eastern massasauga is a small, thick-bodied rattlesnake that lives in shallow wetlands and adjacent uplands in portions of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Ontario. 26-33. 51. Herbicides can help increase the intervals between treatments, however little is known about how herbicides affect snakes (Johnson et al. This species has a series or loose scales at the end of the tail that vibrates (rattles). Klauber, L. M. 1972. Listed as Endangered by New York State: in imminent danger of extirpation in New York. Subspecies catenatus may intergrade with subspecies tergeminus in north-central Missouri (Beltz, in Johnson and Menzies 1993). New York Natural Heritage Program. A unique structure, it is formed from loosely attached, hard, horny segments. The species S. catenatus is classified as least concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Studies have been conducted in a continuing effort to determine the size and habitat requirements of New York's two populations. The massasauga is native to the lower peninsula of Michigan and several other Great Lakes states. New York Natural Heritage Program, a program of the The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Throughout its range, biologists have confirmed that less than half of the eastern massasauga’s historical population… A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. All three are uncommon. Catalogue of New York reptiles and batrachians. Szymanski, Jennifer. Eastern Massasauga 2000). Johnson, G. 1992. Harvey, D. S., and P. J. Weatherhead. The hummocks are also used as a place for bearing young and, most importantly, for hibernation during winter months. Our farm is located on 32 acres just outside of Syracuse, NY and borders the Cicero Swamp Wildlife Management Area, which is home to the endangered Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (hence our name). Proc. (518) 439-7635. 2000). Historically, snakes were killed in large numbers throughout its range (Szymanski 1998). Listed as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. Although the massasauga rattlesnake is thought to be in decline throughout much of its range,

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