Perhaps most significant is that the new version is darker in personality and offers more levels of contrast both as a coherent whole and within each variation. The recording industry of the 20th century saw stars become legends and albums become icons of popular culture. Indeed, he notes, the dotted rhythmic pattern of this variation (pictured) is very similar to that of the gigue from Bach's second French suite and the gigue of the French Overture. Saint Petersburg: Planeta Musiki, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 19:51. (Jeremy Denk joins us all week to explore the Goldberg Variations. The Goldberg Variations, one of the monuments of keyboard literature, was published in 1742 while Bach held the title of Polish Royal and Saxon electoral court-composer. Most of the melody is written out using thirty-second notes, and ornamented with a few appoggiaturas (more frequent in the second section) and a few mordents. It begins with the hands chasing one another, as it were: the melodic line, initiated in the left hand with a sharp striking of the G above middle C, and then sliding down from the B one octave above to the F, is offset by the right hand, imitating the left at the same pitch, but a quaver late, for the first three bars, ending with a small flourish in the fourth: This pattern is repeated during bars 5–8, only with the left hand imitating the right one, and the scales are ascending, not descending. Variation 27 is the last canon of the piece, at the ninth and in 68 time. People often say their favorite variation is number 25, the last minor variation, the darkest, the so-called "black pearl." I hope to … ", This variation is a canon at the octave, in 98 time. Aria from Bach's Goldberg Variations is also known by alternative title: BWV 988, Aria mit 30 Ver鋘derungen, Clavier-躡ung IV. This variation consists mostly of heavy chords alternating with sections of brilliant arpeggios shared between the hands. At age three, Gould was discovered to have perfect pitch (the ability to identify or reproduce any isolated tone). In the first two bars of the B part, the rhythm mirrors that of the beginning of the A part, but after this a different idea is introduced. It resembles a counter-exposition: the voices enter one by one, all begin by stating the subject (sometimes a bit altered, like in the first section). Re: Why is Bach so great and IMPORTANT? Ignore the repeat markings on the score (no full manuscript survives, only Bach’s corrections to printed copies) and it may fly home in under 40 minutes. They played as if gravely reclaiming a fragile miracle from the wreckage of German high culture (both were Jewish). The harpsichordist Ralph Kirkpatrick describes this piece as having "an almost nostalgic tenderness". Bach uses a loose inversion motif between the first half and the second half of this variation, "recycling" rhythmic and melodic material, passing material that was in the right hand to the left hand, and loosely (selectively) inverting it. ... no such return can have a neutral Affekt. Big ones, small ones, profound ones, funny ones, cathartic, tragic, egotistical, jazzy, pastoral, you name it, JSB has it warmed up and waiting for you. This sprightly variation contrasts markedly with the slow, contemplative mood of the aria. [9] The bass line here is one of the most eloquent found in the variations, to which Bach adds chromatic intervals that provide tonal shadings. The Goldberg Variations are perhaps the most important examples of variation form in classical music Sheet Music for Baritone Saxophone accompanied by Piano arranged by Lars Christian Lundholm. The only specified ornament is a trill which is performed on a whole note and which lasts for two bars (11 and 12). This is a canon at the fourth in 34 time, of the inverted variety: the follower enters in the second bar in contrary motion to the leader. In the first section, the left hand accompanies with a bass line written out in repeated quarter notes, in bars 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. "[6], This is a canon at the fifth in 24 time. Contrasting it with Variation 15, Glenn Gould described this variation as "certainly one of the giddiest bits of neo-Scarlatti-ism imaginable. A new stage in Lang Lang's artistic development, it's … The composition was named […] The first (Variation 3) is at the unison (the canonic voice repeats the leading voice verbatim), the second (Variation 6) is at the second (the response repeats the subject a diatonic second away), and so on until Variation 27, which is a canon at the ninth. On the contrary, despite being inspired by Glenn Gould in my teens, I only got into this masterpiece step by step before feeling able to embrace it as a whole, in all of its subtle dimensions, only a … Bach’s Goldberg Variations. Goldberg Variations by J.S. Another lively two-part virtuosic variation for two manuals, in 34 time. Specifically written for the harpsichord, The Goldberg Variations consist of 30 variations and an aria. Both sections end with descending passages in thirty-second notes. Hip-hop producers, jazz groups, brass ensembles, guitarists, harpists, flautists and organists have adapted or recast them for their own medium. It has been quite a while since I have heard anything recorded by Mr. Serkin, but I am reminded of why he had been such a favorite performer of mine many years ago. "Polonaise und Quodlibet: Der innere Kosmos der Goldberg-Variationen" in, Velikovskiy, Alexander (2021). First published in 1741, the work is considered to be one of the most important examples of variation form. The original theme is audibly present in each one of the 14 variations, however much Elgar may decorate it, extend it here or contract it there. First published in 1741, the work is considered to be one of the most important examples of variation form. Variation 5 11. In Elgar’s Enigma the process is mostly what you might call ‘melodic’ variation.. They conjure up worlds, one by one. Classical music The enigma of the “Goldberg Variations” A new recording by Lang Lang, a star Chinese pianist, is a reminder of the complex beauty of Johann Sebastian Bach’s compositions Books… Variation 6 / canon at the second 13. Although it was the first and only of Bach’s works of this kind, it is considered today to be one of the best examples of variation in existence. Aria from Bach's Goldberg Variations is also known by alternative title: BWV 988, Aria mit 30 Ver鋘derungen, Clavier- … It also fitted neatly on one of the new LPs (with the all-important “turn” at the halfway mark). The Goldberg Variations, BWV. The ground bass on which the entire set of variations is built is heard perhaps most explicitly in this variation (as well as in the Quodlibet) due to the simplicity of the bass voice. This variation is another two-part virtuosic toccata. harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFWilliams2001 (, For discussion see Williams (2001, 8), who notes that the. Peter Williams sees echoes of Antonio Vivaldi and Domenico Scarlatti here. Goldberg Variations/Variations by Dan Tepfer, released 08 November 2011 1. The others remain unknown. Just as important, Gould’s 1955 recording of “The Goldberg Variations” ignited a career that would make him one of classical music’s last culture heroes. But playing with his organ on a truck is also a first for him. It’s not as if you can do part of it. Hands cross at bar 13 from the upper register to the lower, bringing back this syncopation for another two bars. In the second section, Bach changes the mood slightly by introducing a few appoggiaturas (bars 19 and 20) and trills (bars 29–30). Following this is a section with both hands playing in contrary motion in a melodic contour marked by sixteenth notes (bars 9–12). It is in 34 time and usually played at a moderately fast tempo. I can only hope that Vi Hart or another talented person is writing a song about the … Canone all'Unisono. A wistfully lovely, French-sounding aria in G major gives way to 30 variations, fiendishly ingenious, joyous or melancholy, split into pods of three each. Most of the closing bars feature trills in one or both hands. Murray Perahia plays the Goldberg Variations of Johann Sebastian Bach, in a recording which has received much critical acclaim. [10] The bass line begins the piece with a low note, proceeds to a slow lament bass and only picks up the pace of the canonic voices in bar 3: A similar pattern, only a bit more lively, occurs in the bass line in the beginning of the second section, which begins with the opening motif inverted. But the implications of this discovery for modern performance have turned out to be less clear than was at first assumed. The Goldberg Variations is based on a wonderful aria in an A/B structure, taken from the second Anna Magdalena notebook. Glenn Gould states that variations 28 and 29 present the only case of "motivic collaboration or extension between successive variations. Both his parents sang. Specified for two manuals, the piece features hand-crossing. This is important to him, especially with classical music. For the Glenn Gould album, see. Even the inquiry, “How long are the ‘Goldberg Variations’?”, prompts a staggering range of answers. ", This quodlibet is based on multiple German folk songs,[12] two of which are Ich bin solang nicht bei dir g'west, ruck her, ruck her ("I have so long been away from you, come closer, come closer") and Kraut und Rüben haben mich vertrieben, hätt mein' Mutter Fleisch gekocht, wär ich länger blieben ("Cabbage and turnips have driven me away, had my mother cooked meat, I'd have opted to stay"). Williams, marvelling at the emotional range of the work, asks: "Can this really be a variation of the same theme that lies behind the adagio no 25? The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, is a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations. They form a very long piece too but are also very dynamic, almost like a symphony. Rosalyn Tureck is one of the very few performers who recorded slow interpretations of the piece. You need to find more stillness within yourself.”, Now, aged 38, he has decided that the time, and stillness, has arrived to add his Goldbergs to the roll call of interpretations. [9] This variation is a canon at the seventh in 44 time; Kenneth Gilbert sees it as an allemande despite the lack of anacrusis. Bach's monumental Goldberg Variations stands as a work of unique, brilliant artistry in piano literature. Canone alla Quinta. Glenn Gould: The Goldberg Variations. a 1 Clav. Like Variation 12, it is in contrary motion with the leader appearing inverted in the second bar. Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple, loved them, and played them as his life neared its end. This kind of improvised harmonizing they called a Quodlibet, and not only could laugh over it quite whole-heartedly themselves, but also aroused just as hearty and irresistible laughter in all who heard them. a 1 Clav. Each section has an alternate ending to be played on the first and second repeat. This is relatively easy to perform on a two-manual harpsichord, but quite difficult to do on a piano. 988, are a set of 30 variations for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach. This is a virtuosic two-part toccata in 1216 time. For me, it matters because the Goldberg Variations are a different type of Bach work. The Goldberg Variations are perhaps the most important examples of variation form in classical music Sheet Music for Piano arranged by Lars Christian Lundholm. info)). Variation 25 is the third and last variation in G minor; a three-part piece, it is marked adagio in Bach's own copy[11] and is in 34 time. This openness means that the work’s interpreters bring their times, as well as talents, to the score. Read his posts on Tuesday and Thursday.). To judge from the Handexemplar, Bach's penchant for theoretical reflec-. For me, it matters because the Goldberg Variations are a different type of Bach work. Copyright © The Economist Newspaper Limited 2021. The supporting bass line is slightly more active than in the previous canons. Variation 10 is a four-voice fughetta, with a four-bar subject heavily decorated with ornaments and somewhat reminiscent of the opening aria's melody. The best reason to hate Bach's Goldberg Variations—aside from the obvious reason that everyone asks you all the time which of the two Glenn Gould recordings you prefer—is that everybody loves them. The Goldberg Variations The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, is a work for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations. Glenn Gould was raised in the Beach neighbourhood of Toronto (the city has designated his childhood home a historic site), with long sojourns at his family’s cottage near Lake Simcoe. Johann Sebastian Bach published The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, in 1741. Variation 1 3. Williams sees this as a sort of polonaise. Most bars feature either a distinctive pattern of eleven sixteenth notes and a sixteenth rest, or ten sixteenth notes and a single eighth note. This variation is a slow, gentle and richly decorated sarabande in 34 time. The piece is based on a descending scale and is in 38 time. When asked why he chose Bach’s Goldberg Variations for his “Window Concert Tour”, he says that the composition is both logical and irregular at the same time. The Goldberg Variations were originally written for harpsichord. Why do you enjoy playing themes and variations? First published in 1741 as the fourth in a series Bach called Clavier-Übung, "keyboard practice", the work is considered to be one of the most important examples of … That's because many environmental reporters think their beat begins and ends with climate change." Each repeated section has alternate endings for the first or second time. About Bach’s Goldberg Variations. Goldberg Variations/Keith Jarrett: Jack Botelho wrote (February 15, 2004): I had the good fortune yesterday to acquire the 1989 ECM Records release of the Goldberg Variations played by Keith Jarrett, thanks to an enthusiastic reference to this recording elsewhere. A rapid melodic line written predominantly in sixteenth notes is accompanied by another melody with longer note values, which features very wide leaps: The Italian type of hand-crossing such as is frequently found in the sonatas of Scarlatti is employed here, with one hand constantly moving back and forth between high and low registers while the other hand stays in the middle of the keyboard, playing the fast passages. A haunting retelling of the Srebrenica massacre, The Marvel Cinematic Universe arrives on TV with “WandaVision”. 3 for solo violin, in the A♭ major prelude from the first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier, and in the D minor prelude of the second book. The title, 'Goldberg Variations' was not named by J.S.Bach. Each section has an alternate ending to be played on the first and second repeat. But playing with his organ on a truck is also a first for him. Not once, but twice: his recording for Deutsche Grammophon, a record label, released on September 4th, consists of a studio version as well as a live performance given pre-lockdown in Bach’s own church, St Thomas’s in Leipzig. This kind of gigue is known as a "Canary", based on the rhythm of a dance which originated from the Canary islands. First published in 1741, the work is considered to be one of the most important examples of variation form. Improvisation 3 / canonic 1 8. In fact, the Goldberg Variations have caused me more misery than any other piece of music in history, with the exception of the Tchaikovsky Trio (for totally different reasons). Both features (ornaments and leaps in the melody) are apparent from the first bar: the piece begins with a transition from the G two octaves below middle C, with a lower mordent, to the G two octaves above it with a trill with initial turn. Just before the end, the sequence breaks down with a singalong mash-up of two pop tunes (the lyrics to one run: “Cabbage and beets have driven me away, if Mother had cooked meat I’d have wanted to stay”). Bach, the architect and servant of the spiritual – a closer look at the, Picander's 1728–29 cycle of cantata librettos, Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", Ueber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke, Toccata and Fugue in D minor ("Dorian"), BWV 538, Fantasia and Fugue in G minor ("Great"), BWV 542, Prelude and Fugue in E minor ("Wedge"), BWV 548, Eight Short Preludes and Fugues, BWV 553–560, Toccata, Adagio and Fugue in C major, BWV 564, Prelude (Toccata) and Fugue in E major, BWV 566, Fantasia ("Pièce d'Orgue") in G major, BWV 572, Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582, Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", BWV 769, Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother, Concerto transcriptions, BWV 592–596 and 972–987, List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of fugal works by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach,, United States National Recording Registry recordings, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2020 [Parker Ramsay] Bach: Goldberg Variations (Arranged for Harp), The dialogue "Aria with Diverse Variations" in the Book, Niemüller, Heinz Hermann (1985). 988, are a set of 30 variations for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach uses close but not exact imitation: the musical pattern in one part reappears a bar later in another (sometimes inverted). Here are bars 15 and 16, the ending of the first section (bar 24 exhibits a similar pattern): This is a rapid two-part hand-crossing toccata in 34 time, with many trills and other ornamentation. The title of this post is an allusion to Bach's Goldberg Variations. This is another two-part hand-crossing variation, in 34 time. The Goldberg Variations, BWV. The story behind the Goldberg Variations… The story behind this work is one of music’s best, with a cast of three. The sixth variation is a canon at the second: the follower starts a major second higher than the leader. If we leave aside the initial and final material of the work (specifically, the Aria, the first two variations, the Quodlibet, and the aria da capo), the remaining material is arranged as follows. One, later nicknamed the “Black Pearl”, wanders through a galaxy of uncanny harmonies. Unlike Lang Lang, I didn’t study the Goldberg Variations by J.S. Like the passepied, a Baroque dance movement, this variation is in 38 time with a preponderance of quaver rhythms. The same sixteenth note figuration is continuously employed and variously exchanged between each of the three voices. Canone alla Quarta in moto contrario, Variatio 15. The melody is written out predominantly in sixteenth and thirty-second notes, with many chromaticisms. Pianist Angela Hewitt notes that there is "a wonderful effect at the very end [of this variation]: the hands move away from each other, with the right suspended in mid-air on an open fifth. TheGoldberg Variations,BWV988, is a work forharpsichordbyJohann Sebastian Bach, consisting of anariaand a set of 30variations. This gradual fade, leaving us in awe but ready for more, is a fitting end to the first half of the piece. Goldberg Variations, BWV 988 ... also judiciously using slight hesitations and rhythmic variations; also important are the much sharper contours in the new version. Please find below the Goldberg Variations composer answer and solution which is part of Daily Themed Crossword December 11 2020 Answers.If you are looking for other crossword clue solutions simply use the search functionality in the sidebar. Johann Sebastian Bach 's Goldberg Variations has become an iconic monument in Western music. These days, I am working on J.S. Silence of the Lambs (1991) This movie, a psychological horror, is … The set of variations can be seen as being divided into two-halves, clearly marked by this grand French overture, commencing with a particularly emphatic opening and closing chords. This ternary pattern—canon, genre piece, arabesque—is repeated a total of nine times, until the Quodlibet breaks the cycle. Canone alla Seconda, List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime, "The "Goldberg" Variations, Essay by Yo Tomita (1997)", "The Quodlibet as Represented in Bach's Final Goldberg Variation BWV 988/30. Canone alla Sesta. Any grand analysis can only be speculative, but it is undeniable that 30 variations with the aria (played twice) makes for 32 movements in toto: that the theme itself is 32 bars long might suggest some sense of mapping, where the entire structure in some way is present in the somewhat innocent theme (or vice-versa). : Andante. Improvisation 6 / canonic 2 14. We then alternate between hands in short bursts written out in short note values until the last three bars of the first section. And the structure of the work can be not only interpreted as an intellectual object but also reconstructed into music. The composition was named […] Sign up to our free daily newsletter, The Economist today, Published since September 1843 to take part in “a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, and an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress.”. In a special recital recorded in Beijing, superstar pianist Lang Lang performs a selection of Bach's Goldberg Variations 9, 7, 26, and 30. In Bach’s Goldberg Variations, every third variation is a canon at an increasing interval. Murray Perahia plays the Goldberg Variations of Johann Sebastian Bach, in a recording which has received much critical acclaim. It is in 34 time. First published in 1741, the work is considered to be one of the most important examples of variation form. Why mess with it? Finally, there is Bach. Bach's biographer Forkel explains the Quodlibet by invoking a custom observed at Bach family reunions (Bach's relatives were almost all musicians): As soon as they were assembled a chorale was first struck up. Glenn Gould’s performances are eccentric and awesome, historic and important in taking the Goldberg Variations from the realm of specialists to a … At the end of the thirty variations, Bach writes Aria da Capo e fine, meaning that the performer is to return to the beginning ("da capo") and play the aria again before concluding. The best reason to hate Bach's Goldberg Variations—aside from the … Variatio 24. In a special recital recorded in Beijing, superstar pianist Lang Lang performs a selection of Bach's Goldberg Variations 9, 7, 26, and 30. This is the first of the hand-crossing, two-part variations. First published in 1741, it is named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may also have been the first performer of the work. The characteristic rhythm in the left hand is also found in Bach's Partita No. Its melody is made to stand out by what has gone on in the last five variations, and it is likely to appear wistful or nostalgic or subdued or resigned or sad, heard on its repeat as something coming to an end, the same notes but now final. al tempo di Giga, Variatio 12. a 1 Clav. You are currently viewing our boards as a guest which gives you limited access to view most discussions and access our other features. She does however argue, like Schulenberg, that it is a French gigue, not an Italian giga and does play it at an unhurried tempo. Bach at the age of ten. A few years later, conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt told Mr Lang that: “You play very well, but the music needs a greater sense of solitude. Many of Bach’s scholars and performers have pointed out additional patterns in the 30 variations, … It is music that calms and builds trust. This work has a distinguished character on which "intellect" can be activated. First published in 1741, this legendary work by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) is one of the most important examples of the variation form, named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg… . It … Every third variation in the series of 30 is a canon, following an ascending pattern. The variations develop not so much from the first melody as its bass line and chord progression. The Goldberg Variations are somehow different from other works. His father, a furrier, played the violin as a child, and his mother — whose grandfather was a cousin of the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg — played the piano, and gave piano and voice lessons. From this devout beginning they proceeded to jokes which were frequently in strong contrast. ... Thoreau, like Gould, emphasized the importance of an unhurried life, but the second meaning was also important to him-seeking to weigh life in the balance and discover its entire meanness or sublimity. TheVariationsare named afterJohann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may have been the first performer. Why do the Goldberg Variations have a reality as "music of intellect", and are they to be the object of the intellectual manipulation. The leader is answered both an octave below and an octave above; it is the only canon of the variations in which the leader alternates between voices in the middle of a section. The maverick Canadian pianist Glenn Gould, in his revolutionary recording of 1955, raced through in 38 minutes and 34 seconds. All the variations are in G major, apart from variations 15, 21, and 25, which are in G minor. [10] Two time signatures are used, 1816 for the incessant melody written in sixteenth notes and 34 for the accompaniment in quarter and eighth notes; during the last five bars, both hands play in 1816. Williams writes that the work's "elusive beauty ... is reinforced by this return to the Aria. On one level, it's simply a beautiful keyboard work, and on another, it's a … The rhythm in the right hand forces the emphasis on the second beat, giving rise to syncopation from bars 1 to 7. The “Goldberg” Variations, Walden-And Informed Consent. The variations located two after each canon (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 29) are what Kirkpatrick calls "arabesques"; they are variations in lively tempo with a great deal of hand-crossing. And you can't go easy on either the difficult or easy ones without impacting your overall performance. The Complete Unreleased Recording Sessions. Aria 2. The piece consists mostly of variations on the texture introduced during its first eight bars, where one hand plays a string of eighth notes and the other accompanies by plucking sixteenth notes after each eighth note. Specified for two manuals, it is largely made up of various scale passages, arpeggios and trills, and features much hand-crossing of different kinds. This variation is a two-part toccata in 34 time that employs a great deal of hand crossing. Jobs, close to death himself, told his biographer Walter Isaacson that he heard the difference in the two recordings as between “night and day”. Improvisation 1 4. Goldberg also states: "Important work is being done on serious problems, such as ocean acidification, overfishing, elephant and rhino poaching, and loss of habitat. The Variations are named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may have been the first performer. Variatio 3. It is specified for two manuals and features large jumps between registers. He died soon after. Variatio 18. The Goldberg variations were first published in 1741, when Bach about 56 years old (in the last decade of his life). Gould’s version belongs to the age of bebop jazz and steel-and-glass architecture: cool, fierce, swift, technically dazzling. Wanda Landowska famously described this variation as "the black pearl" of the Goldberg Variations. There is no regular counter-subject in this fugue. How such a seemingly austere exercise became, for countless performers and listeners, the essence of great music itself remains one of the secrets that draws devotees back to Johann Sebastian Bach’s “Goldberg Variations”. To begin with, since Bach composed it for a two-manual harpsichord, any piano version must take a leap into the dark. It has been on my bucket list for years, but life, projects, and all manner of things continually has put it to the side. [citation needed]. For example, one can see this high regard by its symbolic uses in our favorite movies. See Chapter Seven of Richard Taruskin (2009), Bach: The Goldberg Variations (Glenn Gould album), Variatio 3. a 1 Clav. In sharp contrast with the introspective and passionate nature of the previous variation, this piece is another virtuosic two-part toccata, joyous and fast-paced. Lang Lang (pictured), an exuberant Chinese piano superstar with 20m social-media followers, first played the work, aged 17 and from memory, to Christoph Eschenbach, a conductor-pianist. This repeated note motif also appears in the first bar of the second section (bar 17, two Ds and a C), and, slightly altered, in bars 22 and 23. As with all canons of the Goldberg Variations (except the 27th variation, canon at the ninth), there is a supporting bass line. In many ways, the best piano recordings come from the beginning of the recorded era. "[17] Other arrangements include:[18], "Bach: The Goldberg Variations" redirects here. The title of this post is an allusion to Bach's Goldberg Variations. Second comes his much put-upon musician, the eponymous Johann Goldberg. "[7], This is a dance-like three-part variation in 38 time. He sometimes touches a state of trance-like introspection that may surprise those who know him as a barnstorming stadium-pleaser. Mr Lang’s lush, dreamy and meditative approach will surely divide critics; the Goldbergs often do. ", Glenn Gould said of this variation, "It's the most severe and rigorous and beautiful canon ... the most severe and beautiful that I know, the canon in inversion at the fifth. [citation needed], A note-for-note repeat of the aria at the beginning. The Variations are named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may have been the first performer. Almost everything about the Goldbergs is forever up for grabs, save for their complexity, their beauty and their air of secrecy.

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