Louth, "Birth of church history", 266; Quasten, 3.309. In his posthumous biography of Constantine, Eusebius agrees with Lactantius that Constantine received instructions in a dream to apply a Christian symbol as a device to his soldiers' shields, but unlike Lactantius and subsequent Christian tradition, Eusebius does not date the events to October 312 and does not connect Constantine's vision and dream-vision with the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.[51]. 356, n. 97), treated him very cruelly; then to Cappodocia, and lastly to Thebaid. This work was recently (2011) translated into the English language by David J. Miller and Adam C. McCollum and was published under the name Eusebius of Caesarea: Gospel Problems and Solutions. WhatsApp. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. Continuance of the Arian Controversy. Eusebius’ Relations to the Two Parties. We conclude then that Eusebius was not an Arian (nor an adherent of Lucian) before 318, that soon after that date he became an Arian in the sense in which he understood Arianism, but that during the Council of Nicæa he ceased to be one in any sense. In the following year, he was again summoned before a synod in Tyre at which Eusebius of Caesarea presided. The majority of them are known to us only from long portions quoted in Byzantine catena-commentaries. Eusebius' pupil, Eusebius of Emesa, provides some incidental information. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Martley, trans. Although posterity suspected him of Arianism, Eusebius had madehimself indispensable by his method of authorship; his comprehensive and carefulexcerpts from original sources saved his successors the painstaking labor oforiginal research. Eusebius, the anti-Arian Model Bishop. Eusebius was also favoured by Constantine’s son and successor, the pro-Arian Constantius II, and was made bishop of Constantinople in 339. 1999. Pamphilus and Eusebius occupied themselves with the textual criticism of the Septuagint text of the Old Testament and especially of the New Testament. Arianism is a Christian theology that is considered heretical by the Catholic Church. Cohick claims as support for her position that "Eusebius is a notoriously unreliable historian, and so anything he reports should be critically scrutinized. The information used to create the late-fourth-century Easter Letter, which declared accepted Christian writings, was probably based on the Ecclesiastical History [HE] of Eusebius of Caesarea, wherein he uses the information passed on to him by Origen to create both his list at HE 3:25 and Origen's list at HE 6:25. He’s the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity, he called the First Council of Nicaea, and he built the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. [16] Some, like theologian and ecclesiastical historian John Henry Newman, understand Eusebius' statement that he had heard Dorotheus of Tyre "expound the Scriptures wisely in the Church" to indicate that Eusebius was Dorotheus' pupil while the priest was resident in Antioch; others, like the scholar D. S. Wallace-Hadrill, deem the phrase too ambiguous to support the contention. 3, p. 41; 2.6-8 in Hanson, p. 139; 4-5 in Hanson, p. 6. Although posterity suspected him of Arianism, Eusebius had made himself indispensable by his method of authorship; his comprehensive and careful excerpts from original sources saved his successors the painstaking labor of original research. Now there were among the Hebrews three outstanding offices of dignity, which made the nation famous, firstly the kingship, secondly that of prophet, and lastly the high priesthood. [45], The work as a whole has been lost in the original Greek, but it may be reconstructed from later chronographists of the Byzantine school who made excerpts from the work, especially George Syncellus. The second part, the Canons (Χρονικοὶ Κανόνες (Chronikoi kanones)), furnishes a synchronism of the historical material in parallel columns, the equivalent of a parallel timeline. No Responses yet Pamphilus came to be persecuted by the Romans for his beliefs and died in martyrdom in 310. Christianity at last found recognition by the State; and this brought new problems – apologies of a different sort had to be prepared. An episcopal council in Caesarea pronounced Arius blameless. Because of this he was called upon to present the creed of his own church to the 318 attendees of the Council of Nicaea in 325. [28] Marginal comments in extant manuscripts note that Pamphilus and his friends and pupils, including Eusebius, corrected and revised much of the biblical text in their library. As can be clearly seen in the Poimandres, and even more clearly in an inscription mentioned exclusively in the Theosophia, in the theological language of Egyptian paganism the word homoousios meant that the Nous-Father and the Logos-Son, who are two distinct beings, share the same perfection of the divine nature. [38], Eusebius succeeded Agapius as Bishop of Caesarea soon after 313 and was called on by Arius who had been excommunicated by his bishop Alexander of Alexandria. Updates? Scholars use this range largely because in Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius refers to the third century bishop Dionysius of Alexandria as a contemporary, and Dionysius died in 264 AD. Then followed the time of the Arian controversies, and dogmatic questions came into the foreground. When the council finally accepted their clause, Eusebius signed the creed. (History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol II, Chapter XVI), "Such an acknowledgment will naturally excite a suspicion that a writer who has so openly violated one of the fundamental laws of history has not paid a very strict regard to the observance of the other; and the suspicion will derive additional credit from the character of Eusebius, which was less tinctured with credulity, and more practised in the arts of courts, than that of almost any of his contemporaries." Eusebius wasn't himself an Arian—he rejected the idea that "there was a time when the Son was not" and that Christ was created out of nothing. Eusebian definition is - a follower of Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia : arian. Origen was largely responsible for the collection of usage information, or which churches were using which gospels, regarding the texts which became the New Testament. [7][14] Nothing is known about his parents. By the patronage of Eusebia, wife of Constantius II, Julian, at age 19, was allowed to continue his education, first at Como and later in Greece. Beyond notices in his extant writings, the major sources are the 5th-century ecclesiastical historians Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and the 4th-century Christian author Jerome. Omissions? Some scholars have questioned the Eusebian authorship of this work. Eustathius of Antioch was deposed on a charge of Sabellianism (331), and the Emperor sent his command that Athanasius should receive Arius back to communion. Neither before nor during Constantine's time is there any evidence of a normal, well-established Christian use of the term homoousios in its strictly Trinitarian meaning. [51][52] Attached to the symbol was the phrase "by this conquer" (ἐν τούτῳ νίκα, en toútōi níka), a phrase often rendered into Latin as "in hoc signo vinces". The tables of the second part have been completely preserved in a Latin translation by Jerome, and both parts are still extant in an Armenian translation. He was a heretic, a supporter of Arius, who used his influence among the members of the family of Constantine the Great to further the Arian position as well as his personal esteem. However, the anti-Arian creed from Palestine prevailed, becoming the basis for the Nicene Creed. [citation needed]. [28] Because of his close relationship with his schoolmaster, Eusebius was sometimes called Eusebius Pamphili: "Eusebius, son of Pamphilus". Athanasius was condemned and exiled at the end of 335. Arthur Cushman McGiffert, Ph.D. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine. [51] The Arch of Constantine, constructed in AD 315, neither depicts a vision nor any Christian insignia in its depiction of the battle. He completed the first editions of the Ecclesiastical History and Chronicle before 300. [7] He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. Eusebius is fairly unusual in his preterist, or fulfilled, eschatological view. Corrections? But, Eusebius had never posed as an Arian, and in 341 he had a fresh, triumph in the great Dedication Synod of Antioch, where a large number of orthodox and conservative bishops ignored the Council of Nicæa, and showed themselves quite at one with the Eusebian party; though denying they were ever followers of Arius, who was not even a bishop! To the class of apologetic and dogmatic works belong: A number of writings, belonging in this category, have been entirely lost. It contained: Of the life of Pamphilus, only a fragment survives. Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. At the … Does this mean Constantine was an Arian when he died? 27. But when a man acts wrongly, nature is not to be blamed; for what is wrong, takes place not according to nature, but contrary to nature, it being the work of choice, and not of nature. Eusebius' Life of Constantine (Vita Constantini) is a eulogy or panegyric, and therefore its style and selection of facts are affected by its purpose, rendering it inadequate as a continuation of the Church History. He refused, however, to sign the anathema condemning the Arians because he doubted “whether Arius really held what the anathema imputed to him.” Shortly after the council he renewed his alliance with Arius, and the Roman emperor Constantine I the Great exiled him to Gaul, where he remained until he presented a confession of faith in 328. [40] However, the anti-Arian creed from Palestine prevailed, becoming the basis for the Nicene Creed. Pamphilus might not have obtained all of Origen's writings, however: the library's text of Origen's commentary on Isaiah broke off at 30:6, while the original commentary was said to have taken up thirty volumes. Hence, much has been preserved, quoted by Eusebius, which otherwise would have been lost. [59] The original work was also translated into Syriac, and lengthy quotations exist in a catena in that language, and also in Coptic and Arabic catenas.[60]. 259v)", Conversion of Constantine according to Eusebius. At about the same time, he worked on his Chronicle, a universal calendar of events from the Creation to, again, Eusebius' own time. Extant are: Eusebius also wrote a work Quaestiones ad Stephanum et Marinum, On the Differences of the Gospels (including solutions). Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as one of the most learned Christians of his time. Eusebius was a pupil of Lucian the Martyr, in whose school Eusebius learned the doctrines that came to be called Arianism. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the Martyr, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines. Eusebius of Nicomedia was an Arian priest, the man who baptised Constantine the Great. The main thesis of this paper is that homoousios came straight from Constantine's Hermetic background. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Eusebius-of-Nicomedia, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Eusebius of Nicomedia. Eusebius of Nicomedia was initially bishop of Berytus (modern day Beirut) in Phoenicia. [62], In the June 2002 issue of the Church History journal, Pier Beatrice reports that Eusebius testified that the word homoousios (consubstantial) "was inserted in the Nicene Creed solely by the personal order of Constantine."[63]. [23] Pamphilus also managed a school that was similar to (or perhaps a re-establishment of[24]) that of Origen. Pope Benedict XVI - August 2, 2019. [51] In a dream that night "the Christ of God appeared to him with the sign which had appeared in the sky, and urged him to make himself a copy of the sign which had appeared in the sky, and to use this as a protection against the attacks of the enemy. "The gravest of the ecclesiastical historians, Eusebius himself, indirectly confesses, that he has related whatever might redound to the glory, and that he has suppressed all that could tend to the disgrace, of religion." Eusebius succeeded Agapius as Bishop of Caesarea soon after 313 and was called on by Arius who had been excommunicated by his bishop Alexander of Alexandria. The theology of Eusebius is problematic. [31] Pamphilus gave Eusebius a strong admiration for the thought of Origen. Like Origen, he started from the fundamental thought of the absolute sovereignty (monarchia) of God. Despite his being suspected as an Arian heretic by figures within the church of his time, Eusebius was highly scrupulous when collecting and making use of his sources. He was a Bishop included in the Arab Caliphate in Phoenicia. Facebook. Church History — Eusebius Pamphilius. In 328, however, Constantine reversed his opinion about the Arian heresy and had both exiled bishops reinstated. [47] The time scheme correlated the history with the reigns of the Roman Emperors, and the scope was broad. [61], A letter Eusebius is supposed to have written to Constantine's daughter Constantina, refusing to fulfill her request for images of Christ, was quoted in the decrees (now lost) of the Iconoclast Council of Hieria in 754, and later quoted in part in the rebuttal of the Hieria decrees in the Second Council of Nicaea of 787, now the only source from which some of the text is known. In 351…. He became Bishop of Berytus but managed to get a transfer to the See of Nicomedia, which was the residence of the Eastern Emperor Licinius. The literary productions of Eusebius reflect on the whole the course of … [7][13] He was most likely born in or around Caesarea Maritima. Every rational soul has naturally a good free-will, formed for the choice of what is good. Eusebius is another of the defenders of the Church during one of its most trying periods. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library, (1890). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [15] He was baptized and instructed in the city, and lived in Syria Palaestina in 296, when Diocletian's army passed through the region (in the Life of Constantine, Eusebius recalls seeing Constantine traveling with the army). Athanasius, foreseeing the result, went to Constantinople to bring his cause before the Emperor. Both Eusebius of Nicodemia and Eusebius of Caesarea played major roles in the Nicean council. They were: The addresses and sermons of Eusebius are mostly lost, but some have been preserved, e.g., a sermon on the consecration of the church in Tyre and an address on the thirtieth anniversary of the reign of Constantine (336). Little is known about the life of Eusebius. For God has not made nature or the substance of the soul bad; for he who is good can make nothing but what is good. [41], The theological views of Arius, that taught the subordination of the Son to the Father, continued to be controversial. Having once excluded any relationship of the Nicene homoousios with the Christian tradition, it becomes legitimate to propose a new explanation, based on an analysis of two pagan documents which have so far never been taken into account. His comprehensive and careful excerpts from original sources saved his successors the painstaking labor of original research. Eusebius expressly distinguishes the Son as distinct from Father as a ray is also distinct from its source the sun. Eusebius of Nicomedia, (died c. 342), an important 4th-century Eastern church bishop who was one of the key proponents of Arianism (the doctrine that Jesus Christ is not of the same substance as God) and who eventually became the leader of an Arian group called the Eusebians. God sent Christ into the world that it may partake of the blessings included in the essence of God. [42], Much like his birth, the exact date of Eusebius' death is unknown. [36] Whatever its secular contents, the primary aim of Origen and Pamphilus' school was to promote sacred learning. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the word homoousios was inserted in the Nicene Creed solely by the personal order of Constantine. Socrates and Sozomen write about Eusebius' death, and place it just before Constantine's son Constantine II died, which was in early 340. It is very difficult to explain the seeming paradoxical fact that this word, along with the explanation given by Constantine, was accepted by the "Arian" Eusebius, whereas it has left no traces at all in the works of his opponents, the leaders of the anti-Arian party such as Alexander of Alexandria, Ossius of Cordova, Marcellus of Ancyra, and Eustathius of Antioch, who are usually considered Constantine's theological advisers and the strongest supporters of the council. The authenticity or authorship of the letter remains uncertain. Everything is good which is according to nature. [28] Their efforts made the hexaplaric Septuagint text increasingly popular in Syria and Palestine. Lastly, Eusebius wrote eulogies in praise of Constantine. For an easier survey of the material of the four Evangelists, Eusebius divided his edition of the New Testament into paragraphs and provided it with a synoptical table so that it might be easier to find the pericopes that belong together. The saint firmly declined. Lactantius does not mention a vision in the sky but describes a revelatory dream on the eve of battle. Eusebius enjoyed the favor of the Emperor Constantine. I pray that you fare well in the Lord, remembering our tribulations, fellow-Lucianist, truly-called Eusebius [i.e. Eusebius' own surviving works probably only represent a small portion of his total output. Of the extensive literary activity of Eusebius, a relatively large portion hasbeen preserved. To all this activity must be added numerous writings of a miscellaneous nature, addresses, letters, and the like, and exegetical works that extended over the whole of his life and that include both commentaries and an important treatise on the location of biblical place names and the distances between these cities. The life of Constantine was compiled after the death of the emperor and the election of his sons as Augusti (337). There are three interpretations of this term: (1) that Eusebius was the "spiritual son", or favored pupil, of Pamphilus; "For these reasons I am satisfied that our present passages in Luke Chapter 2 from the Coptic. Fremantle, W.H., G. Lewis and W.G. Constantine called the bishops to his court, among them Eusebius. Sabrina Inowlocki & Claudio Zamagni (eds), This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 01:13. Eusebius may have met Arius, the Alexandrian priest and originator of Arianism, in Antioch as a fellow student under the theologian and martyr St. Lucian. David M. Gwynn, "From Iconoclasm to Arianism: The Construction of Christian Tradition in the Iconoclast Controversy" [Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 47 (2007) 225–251], p. 227-245. His letters to Carpianus and Flacillus exist complete. Most scholars believe Eusebius was born sometime between 260 and 265 AD, but we can’t say for sure. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about AD 314. Alternate views have suggested that Gibbon's dismissal of Eusebius is inappropriate: While many have shared Burckhardt's assessment, particularly with reference to the Life of Constantine, others, while not pretending to extol his merits, have acknowledged the irreplaceable value of his works which may principally reside in the copious quotations that they contain from other sources, often lost. [20] Together with the books of his patron Ambrosius, Origen's library (including the original manuscripts of his works[21][note 1]) formed the core of the collection that Pamphilus established. In 313 or 314, Eusebius was made bishop of Caesarea in his native Palestine. The martyrology has not survived as a whole, but it has been preserved almost completely in parts. [27], Soon after Pamphilus settled in Caesarea (ca. The information was collated and arranged in such a way that the author was beyond reproach. Eusebius was baptized and ordained at Caesarea, where he was taught by the learned presbyter Pamphilus, to whom he was bound by ties of respect and affection and from whom he derived the name “Eusebius Pamphili” (the son or servant of Pamphilus). Translation by GLT. Schaff, Philip and Rev. Eusebius was a Christian thinker in the third-fourth centuries C.E. [35], Eusebius' Preparation for the Gospel bears witness to the literary tastes of Origen: Eusebius quotes no comedy, tragedy, or lyric poetry, but makes reference to all the works of Plato and to an extensive range of later philosophic works, largely from Middle Platonists from Philo to the late 2nd century. He presided over a synod in Antioch in 341—where a creed omitting the homoousion clause was adopted—and he probably died soon afterward. In support of Arius’ cause, Eusebius appealed to other bishops. Although Eusebius' works are regarded as giving insight into the history of the early church, he was not without prejudice, especially in regard to the Jews, for while "Eusebius indeed blames the Jews for the crucifixion of Jesus, he nevertheless also states that forgiveness can be granted even for this sin and that the Jews can receive salvation. Hanson, p. 139 ; 4-5 in Hanson, p. 139 ; 4-5 in Hanson, 41. 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And Arian-sympathizer Eusebius, a relatively large portion hasbeen preserved time Eusebius compiled a of... Becoming the basis for the purpose of harmonizing the contradictions in the Coptic. 340. [ 43 ] [ 17 ], most scholars date the birth Church... 259V ) '', 266 ; Quasten, 3.309 right to your inbox the foreground authorship the. Among them Eusebius 40 ] however, Constantine had Eusebius deposed and banished from his see that! Sympathizer and formulates a doctrinal creed in favor of the new Testament Martyrdoms, presumably use... Homoousios was inserted in the Egyptian Coptic Church and the Ethiopian Church Eusebius who. Empire, Vol II, Chapter XVI ) in Hanson, p. 139 ; 4-5 in Hanson, p. ;... [ 8 ] some scholars question the accuracy of Eusebius of Caesarea presided ] was conducting ''. ( monarchia ) of God some time between the second banishment of athanasius, which began in mid 339 found. 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