Example: In 1998, Cholera disease was epidemic in Madras Endemic diseases are relatively rare and not as widespread as an epidemic. Going one step farther, an endemic can lead to an outbreak, and an outbreak can happen anywhere. Endemic definition: If a disease or illness is endemic in a place, it is frequently found among the people... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples For example, the common cold occurs predictably among American schoolchildren. Endemic is a word used to refer to a disease that is already presented in the population of a particular area. Exemple : le SIDA dans de nombreux pays d’Afrique. However, it works best when people have one copy of the gene. It is used to describe a disease that is present at an approximately constant level within a society or country. Express Explained is now on Telegram. Color scheme included to … Overall, the swift political response to epidemics has resulted in success. The term endemic refers to the constant presence and/or usual prevalence of a disease or infectious agent in a population within a geographic area. Newcastle Disease (ND) is a viral respiratory disease of poultry and wild birds that can cause significant deaths. Endemism is the condition of being endemic, or restricted in geographical distribution to an area or region. Pranjic N, Mustajbegovic J, Ivankovic D, Kern J, Vuletic S. Recipe From the Past for the Future: Public Health Intervention Represent a Process for C entury. Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty. The Impact of HIV-associated Anaemia on the Incidence of Red Blood Cell Transfusion: Implications for Blood Services in HIV-endemic Countries. The one that causes syphilis is Treponema pallidum sp. An endemic disease is the one that is always present in a population, e.g. For example, improved smallpox control in Europe was reversed during the First World War. The growing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: a neglected population. The HIV epidemic is an example of an infectious disease that has become endemic in many areas, while in other areas it still causes epidemics in previously unexposed populations. 2015 Apr;27(2):125-8. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.125-128. Epidemiology (Fifth edition.). Mater Sociomed. Its level is normally at zero, but at an observable level. 2015;26(10):696–703. Examples (Figures 1.25 and 1.26) include the epidemic of Lyme disease that emerged in the northeastern United States in the late 1980s (spread from deer to human by deer ticks) and the outbreak of West Nile encephalitis in the Queens section of New York City in 1999 (spread from birds to humans by mosquitoes). Fortunately, there is a vaccine available to prevent hepatitis B transmission. Bayesian evaluation of budgets for endemic disease control: An example using management changes to reduce milk somatic cell count early in the first lactation of Irish dairy cows. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Learn more. 2016 Sep 1;63(5):627-33. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw348. The Truth Behind Common Misconceptions of Sickle Cell Disease, Differentiating Epidemic from Endemic or Sporadic Infectious Disease Occurrence, Pandemics: Risks, Impacts, and Mitigation, Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First Century: Strengthening the Global Response, Malaria and Early African Development: Evidence from the Sickle Cell Trait, The growing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: a neglected population, HIV Infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities, Hepatitis B: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries, Immunization in the United States: Recommendations, Barriers, and Measures to Improve Compliance: Part 1: Childhood Vaccinations, Prevention and Management of Chronic Hepatitis B, Biochemical and Immunological Mechanisms by Which Sickle Cell Trait Protects Against Malaria, Metaanalysis of the Performance of a Combined Treponemal and Nontreponemal Rapid Diagnostic Test for Syphilis and Yaws, Recipe From the Past for the Future: Public Health Intervention Represent a Process for C entury, The Impact of HIV-associated Anaemia on the Incidence of Red Blood Cell Transfusion: Implications for Blood Services in HIV-endemic Countries. endemia) (portug. Clin Infect Dis. See more. World J Hepatol. Syphilis is also still considered to be endemic in certain parts of Africa. What Is the Worst That Could Happen If I Don't Get Tested for STDs? Malaria is such a fixture in certain parts of Africa that a protective mutation—sickle cell trait—has become common in local populations. The sickle cell gene makes people less susceptible to malaria. World Health Organization. It may also refer to the “usual” or expected frequency of the disease within such area or population group. 1 1 The terms endemic and epidemic define not diseases but disease behaviour. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. ENDEMIE (angl. Gong L, Parikh S, Rosenthal PJ, Greenhouse B. Biochemical and Immunological Mechanisms by Which Sickle Cell Trait Protects Against Malaria. For example, polio disease can remain redundant within a population for a long period … 2019;7(4), Madhav N, Oppenheim B, Gallivan M, et al. Endemic definition, natural to or characteristic of a specific people or place; native; indigenous: endemic folkways;countries where high unemployment is endemic. Pandemics are worldwide epidemics. Under certain circumstances, an epidemic can lead to a disease becoming endemic. But what constitutes a pandemic, and how does it differ from epidemics, endemics, and outbreaks? The term “holoendemic” a high level of infection beginning early in life and affecting most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do the children, as in the case of malaria. 2012;4(3):74–80. The Pandemic disease can be … 2016;10:34–48. Published 2016 Apr 8. doi:10.2174/1874613601610010034, Franco E, Bagnato B, Marino MG, Meleleo C, Serino L, Zaratti L. Hepatitis B: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries. Endemic diseases are often confused with epidemics. However, an epidemic refers to an outbreak of a disease. Again like the poor, they tend to be overlooked, taken for granted, or neglected. Park, K. (n.d.). Mosquitoes in these areas carry dengue fever and transmit it from person to person. An endemic disease, Berry explains, is consistently present in the community, but at a stable and predictable level. According to the U.S.-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a disease is endemic when it is constantly or predictably prevalent within a population or region. Conclusion The epidemic is a type of disease that occurs suddenly in a particular population, causing a severe damage. endemie) Maladie, cliniquement exprimée ou non, sévissant régulièrement chez l’Homme dans une région donnée. But in 2019 there was an outbreak of dengue fever … Yaws. endemic definition: 1. especially of a disease or a condition, regularly found and very common among a particular group…. Endemic diseases are often confused with epidemic diseases. An example of endemic is a description for an area where HIV/AIDs flourishes. pallidum. Int J STD AIDS. ... Case-fatality ratio is an example of a clinical severity measure, and cumulative incidence of infection is an example of a transmissibility measure in the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework. Endemic. Endemic happens when a disease is regularly present among a particular population, environment, or region. HERE are many translated example sentences containing "ENDEMIC DISEASE" - english-french … The latter is the sudden outbreak of the disease in a particular area and the former is the persistence of particular disease within a geographical region. The major agent that is involved in the spread of the disease is traced and the keen control over the agent is always maintained. CDC.gov January 4, 2019, Riley LW. An epidemic is an outbreak of a disease, however, the endemic disease is the one that is constantly prevalent in a particular geographical area. An endemic disease may be geographically isolated, or it may be isolated to a certain group. For example, when COVID-19 was limited to Wuhan, China, it was an epidemic. Malaria and Early African Development: Evidence from the Sickle Cell Trait. Made with ♡ by Sagar Aryal. The term endemism can appl… An endemic disease when conditions are favorable may burst into an epidemic (e.g., hepatitis A, typhoid fever). Elizabeth Boskey, PhD, MPH, CHES, is a social worker, adjunct lecturer, and expert writer in the field of sexually transmitted diseases. Online Microbiology and Biology Study Notes, Last Updated on January 10, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. chickenpox, malaria, etc. PMID: 24231116. Read our, Medically reviewed by Matthew Wosnitzer, MD, Medically reviewed by Cristian Zanartu, MD, Medically reviewed by Robert Burakoff, MD, MPH, Verywell Health uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. For instance, the common cold is endemic because somebody always has one. To learn more about what is endemic species, endemic species of India, and examples of endemic species, keep visiting BYJU’S website or … HIV Infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities. It is caused by a protozoan parasite. The term endemic refers to the constant presence and/or usual prevalence of a disease or infectious agent in a population within a geographic area. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; 2017 Nov 27. Endemic is derived from Greek en meaning in and demos meaning people. These endemic diseases are not always present at high levels. Malaria as an Example Malaria is endemic in many areas of Africa. The HIV epidemic is an example of an infectious disease that has become endemic in many areas, while in other areas it still causes epidemics in previously unexposed populations. P T. 2016;41(7):426–436. Endemic definition: If a disease or illness is endemic in a place, it is frequently found among the people... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples For example, chickenpox is endemic (steady state) in the United Kingdom, but malaria is not. In the WHO press conference, Dr. Ryan also pointed to HIV as an example of an endemic virus. When they have two, it can cause significant health problems. Every year, there are a few cases of malaria reported in the UK, but these do not lead to sustained transmission in the population due to the lack of a suitable vector (mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles). Endemic diseases such as malaria are among the major health problems in low-income tropical countries. Some examples of endemics include the chicken pox and malaria, where there are predictable number of cases every year in certain parts of the world. Many translated example sentences containing "endemic disease" – French-English dictionary and search engine for French translations. A disease/sickness is considered to be endemic if the disease is permanently prevalent in a particular region, geography, or population. If a person is planning on traveling to an area where hepatitis is endemic, vaccination is usually recommended. Marks M, Yin YP, Chen XS, Castro A, Causer L, Guy R, Wangnapi R, Mitjà O, Aziz A, Castro R, da Luz Martins Pereira F, Taleo F, Guinard J, Bélec L, Tun Y, Bottomley C, Ballard RC, Mabey DC. Translations in context of "ENDEMIC DISEASE" in english-french. endemic example sentences. 2. Pandemic Definition In Microbiology. A related disease, known as Yaws, is also endemic in some areas of the tropics. Yaws is mostly found in children, and it is not sexually transmitted. Regions endemic for certain diseases such as malaria, African sleeping sickness or Chagas disease have pathogenic organisms such as a virus, bacteria or parasite that are the causative agents for the disease, and a natural vector or reservoir … at least in the U.S. Transfus Apher Sci. Express Explained is now on Telegram . Example sentences with the word endemic. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved. For example, malaria is one disease that is endemic in Africa or at least major parts of the continent. An endemic references to disease occurrence within a population and it remains consistently within the population for a period of time without spreading to a large group of people. Click here to join our channel (@ieexplained) and stay updated with … Chagas disease is divided into acute phase, asymptomatic intermediate phase, and the chronic phase. Providing proper sanitary methods in all areas which will help to prevent and control the spread of the disease. For instance, entire families of different species of birds are endemic to the island of Madagascar. Vaccination against hepatitis is also part of the standard childhood immunization schedule in the United States.. How to Tell and What to Do, STI's That Are Spread Through Skin Contact, What You Should Know About the 5 Types of Viral Hepatitis, Understanding If You Can Get an Infection From a Blood Transfusion. It can remain constantly if there are no interventions made to curb it. Communicable diseases are termed endemic when they have a relatively stable pattern of occurrence in a given geographical area or population group at the relatively high prevalence and incidence. [Updated 2019 Oct 29]. Its level is normally at zero, but at an observable level. Slowly the parasite invades the central nervous system and causes a disturbance in the sleep cycle, poor coordination, and confusion. 3. Scaled examples of past influenza pandemics and past influenza seasons. Each country may have a disease that is unique, for example Caribbean Dengue is still present due to a failure to eradicate the Aedes aegypti mosquito (see image R). However, it's caused by a close relative of the bacterium that causes syphilis. In epidemiology, a disease will be called Pandemic, when an epidemic spread worldwide. Chickenpox is an endemic in the United Kingdom. The endemic disease of Sylvilagus rabbits is of little economic significance, and thus no prophylactic methods have been developed. Additionally, individuals might get infected in one group and transmit to another. Syphilis used to be endemic around the world. Fortunately, effective treatments have gone a long way in reducing the number of people infected by this disease. (49, 50) If this epidemic has been recorded in several countries and areas, it is called a pandemic. Malaria, per the CDC, is another example of an endemic disease in certain areas. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. By contrast, endemic diseases, such as HIV in 2017 and tuberculosis, struggle to maintain the same attention. Endemic diseases carried away additional vast numbers of people. The area or region can vary in size, and is defined or identified in different ways. Pertenue. Endemic is derived from Greek en meaning in and demos meaning people. An Endemic disease can be converted into an epidemic, if the disease-causing virulent strain of a pathogen appears in a large number when most of a population lacks immunity. Malar J. Ventola CL. 2014 Dec;51(3):10-8. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2014.10.012. doi:10.4254/wjh.v4.i3.74. Differentiating Epidemic from Endemic or Sporadic Infectious Disease Occurrence. Best example is malarial disease is endemic in Africa. It refers to the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group, without importation from outside. A preliminary study on epidemic endemic disease which results from drinking water is made, according to regional distribution law of the elements in groundwater in Jilin province. Because natural infection occurs in domestic European rabbits (Hagen, 1966), the adoption of control methods may become necessary. 22 sentence examples: 1. Pandemic . endemic disease 1. The disease often occurs in cycles. The term “hyperendemic” expresses that the disease is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all age groups equally. In: Jamison DT, Gelband H, Horton S, et al., editors. Published 2019 Mar 28. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549, Depetris-Chauvin E, Weil DN. doi:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000578, Kharsany AB, Karim QA. For example, chickenpox is considered endemic in the UK, but malaria is not. Ruili City of endemic disease prevention Office. Pleural effusion an unusual feature of … hyperendemic disease: a disease that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all age groups equally. Malaria is an endemic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. 2019;10:549. It can remain constantly if there are no interventions made to curb it. Going one step farther, an endemic can lead to an outbreak, and an outbreak can happen … Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine. Endemic refers to a disease being constantly present in a population. Malaria’s Impact Worldwide. Last summer’s dengue fever outbreak in Hawaii is as an example. Educating the people in the locality regarding the ways to control the disease and about the modes of methods involved in spreading the disease. Bhat M, Ghali P, Deschenes M, Wong P. Prevention and Management of Chronic Hepatitis B. Int J Prev Med. Mentioned in: Bejel. In fact, a disease, when it resides permanently in the population of an area is referred to as endemic. It's unlikely that it will become endemic again. In contrast, the endemic disease is one that is constantly present in a group or geographic area. Open AIDS J. Each country may have a disease that is unique, for example Caribbean Dengue is still present due to a failure to eradicate the Aedes aegypti mosquito (see image R). 2014 Dec;5(Suppl 3):S200-7. An epidemic occurs when a disease is spreading through one or more populations. Not all endemic diseases last forever in every geographic region, says Dr. Schwartz. It is always noted that endemic disease is confused with epidemic disease. Endemic Diseases. Wet ground conditions may also provide favourable survival conditions for leptospiral organisms. Newcastle Disease. Countries where malaria is endemic are primarily located in the tropics, and tend to be developing nations with limited public health infrastructure for fighting the disease. It is caused by a protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. As a noun, endemic means a disease that is regularly found in a population of people or certain area. For example… Endemic disease. It is transmitted by a protozoan parasite from the Plasmodium genus. Pandemics: Risks, Impacts, and Mitigation. This disease is endemic to Mexico, South, and Central America. Ice is endemic to Antarctica. In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs. It is always prevalent in the population that lives in that area. An endemic disease is a disease that is always present in a certain population or region. The defining feature of a regional endemic disease is that it can always be found in the population that lives there.. An Endemic disease can be converted into an epidemic, if the disease-causing virulent strain of a pathogen appears in a large number when most of a population lacks immunity. In contrast, a disease is epidemic when it affects a significant portion of the population over a large area and in a short span of time. There are various types of methods to control these diseases. Chicken pox, tuberculosis, and malaria are examples of endemic diseases, whereas influenza, SARS, and the Black Plague are epidemic diseases that have claimed many lives. Endemic diseases are relatively rare and not as widespread as an epidemic. They destroy the red blood cells in the spleen and liver. (‎1993)‎. Endemism is an ecological classification in that it describes the range or distribution of a species, or group of species. Learn how your comment data is processed. endemia) (ital. Here are some examples, Advancements in modern medicine have eliminated many endemics. Diseases for which a larger than expected number of cases occurs in a short time within a geographic region are called epidemic disease s . Metaanalysis of the Performance of a Combined Treponemal and Nontreponemal Rapid Diagnostic Test for Syphilis and Yaws. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. About 7.6 million people are infected with Chagas disease. Epidemic disease is the sudden outbreak of the disease in a particular area. For example, outbreaks of yersiniosis (‘flood mud scours’) have been reported in cattle in Australia following winter flooding. For example, chickenpox is endemic (steady state) in the United Kingdom, but malaria is not. The Spread of Disease: Endemic, Epidemic & Pandemic Chain of Infection: Definition & Example Communicable & Noncommunicable Diseases: Definition & Examples What is Immunity? About 7.6 million people are infected with Chagas disease. It is an outbreak of disease in the form of epidemic that spreads at a global level throughout the world and remains there for sometimes a year or even more wiping out millions of people e.g. When the cases begin to rise, it is classified as an epidemic. It is a disease that is very common among the African population. Translations in context of "ENDEMIC DISEASE" in english-french. Some examples of epidemic diseases are smallpox, H1N1, the black plague, etc. An endemic disease is a type of disease which is prevalent in a particular geographical area or population. Dengue fever is endemic to certain regions of Africa, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. How to use endemic in a sentence. How to use endemic in a sentence. Endemic definition is - belonging or native to a particular people or country. Beaglehole, Robert, Bonita, Ruth, Kjellström, Tord & World Health Organization. Learn more. Endemic Disease. Other examples of holoendemic diseases include ocular trachoma in certain areas in sub-Saharan Africa, where virtually all children in those populations have been infected, and hepatitis B in areas of the Marquesas Islands. For example, chickenpox is considered endemic in the UK, but malaria is not. If conditions change in the host, the agent or the environment, an endemic disease does so. Synonym Discussion of endemic. Gordis, L. (2014). endemia) (roum. I will look first at early modern England, and then focus on the public health movement of the 19th century in Britain. Examples of endemic diseases include chicken pox that occurs at a predictable rate among young school children in the United States and malaria in some areas of Africa. 3rd edition. Front Immunol. This disease is caused by a protozoan parasite belonging to two different species of the Trypanosoma genus. Hyperendemic Disease and Hypoendemic Disease. adjective. For many, the paradox is that endemic disease, in its totality, continues to impose a far higher public health burden than epidemic disease. Diseases can also be endemic. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Endemic diseases such as malaria are among the major health problems in low-income tropical countries. 4. Gram-positive bacteria- cell wall, examples, diseases, antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria- cell wall, examples, diseases, antibiotics, Integumentary System- definition, organs, functions, diseases, Disorders and Diseases of the Human Digestive System, Diseases and disorders of the male reproductive system, Diseases and Disorders of the female reproductive system, Cell proliferation- Definition, assay, differentiation, diseases, Communicable vs non-communicable diseases- Definition, 17 Differences, Examples, Connective Tissue- definition, structure, cells, types, functions, diseases, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?term=Endemic+Diseases, https://byjus.com/biology/endemic-diseases/, https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-an-endemic-disease-3132825, https://www.who.int/mediacentre/commentaries/2016/Endemic-infectious-diseases-next-15-years/en/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/endemic-disease, https://www.omicsonline.org/control-of-endemic-diseases-scholarly-open-access-journals.php, https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/iwachap4.pdf?ua=1, https://www.britannica.com/science/endemic-disease, Clostridium perfringens- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention. endemic definition: 1. especially of a disease or a condition, regularly found and very common among a particular group…. Malaria is endemic in many areas of Africa. 2018;128(610):1207–1234. Endemic infectious diseases: the next 15 years Dr Ren Minghui, WHO Assistant Director-General for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases. Other articles where Endemic disease is discussed: disease: Epidemiology: …it is considered to be endemic in that area. It can also refer to a species that is always present in a region. Covid-19 and Ebola virus. By using Verywell Health, you accept our, The Most Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Beyond Zika: What to Know About Mosquito-Borne Diseases, 10 Vaccines You Might Need Before You Travel, Is It Food Poisoning? Econ J (London). Endemic diseases carried away additional vast numbers of people. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525302/doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0527-1/pt5.ch17, Bloom DE, Cadarette D. Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First Century: Strengthening the Global Response. Endemic diseases, like the poor, are always with us. Malaria, per the CDC, is another example of an endemic disease in certain areas. Endemic means a disease that occurs in a certain place or group of people. Some examples of endemics include the chicken pox and malaria, where there are predictable number of cases every year in certain parts of the world. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. doi:10.1177/0956462414549036. HERE are many translated example sentences containing "ENDEMIC DISEASE" - english-french … As new control or preventive measures are applied, the endemic status of the disease may change. Endemic malaria is malaria that remains naturally and consistently present in a region because there are plentiful vectors for the disease, ensuring it will continue to be passed through society. Epub 2013 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.10.011. Animal Health Australia (AHA) manages projects and programs that work to mitigate the impacts of endemic diseases on the Australian livestock industries. Endemic diseases are not always present at high levels. Malaria is an example of an endemic disease because it is mostly limited to small pockets of infection in Africa. For example, polio disease can remain redundant within a population for a long period of time if there are … The highest transmission rate of malaria—a serious, sometimes fatal disease caused by a … Immunization in the United States: Recommendations, Barriers, and Measures to Improve Compliance: Part 1: Childhood Vaccinations. It is always prevalent in the population that lives in that area. It causes fever, joint pain, sweating, and headaches. How Effective Is Heplisav-B in Preventing Hepatitis B? Below is an unofficial yet informative guide outlining the differences between each type of disease. Endemics, on the other hand, are a constant presence in a specific location. and endemic disease in relation to notions of excess and preventability, with particular reference to official action. However, it can still lead to significant problems—particularly for newborns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Syphilis. At this point, and for the conceivable future, eradication is unlikely. That's true even as improving treatment is starting to bring the HIV epidemic under control. Tudor ME, Al Aboud AM, Gossman WG. Malaria is an example of an endemic disease because it is mostly limited to small pockets of infection in Africa. Malaria is endemic to parts of Africa. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. An endemic references to disease occurrence within a population and it remains consistently within the population for a period of time without spreading to a large group of people. Scope: Endemic disease prevention Endemic disease prevention. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12433, Shannon CL, Klausner JD. They can be relatively rare. This causes anemia in the patients and can prove fatal if left untreated. I have been working in the endemic disea © 2021 Microbe Notes. Endemic vs. Outbreak . Hyperendemic refers to the persistent, higher levels of disease prevalence in a particular place. For example, malaria is endemic to some regions of Brazil, but is not endemic to the United States. Influenza is an example of an endemic disease. The bacteria that causes Yaws is known as T. pallidum sp. Archer SC, Mc Coy F, Wapenaar W, Green MJ Prev Vet Med 2014 Jan 1;113(1):80-7. Basic epidemiology, Updated reprint.

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